Vit. K2?

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Vit. K2?

Postby Gwen » Tue Aug 06, 2013 8:22 am

Hi Jeff,
What's the scoop on Vit. K2? I've read that K1 is obtained from plants, but K2 is obtained by eating the animals that are grasss fed. It seems people have a shortage of K2 which is essential to fight disease?
Thanks,
Gwen
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Re: Vit. K2?

Postby JeffN » Tue Aug 06, 2013 8:52 am

Most people have a shortage of all good things when it comes to nutrition because right now, we have succeeded at consuming the worst diet ever consumed by humans in recorded history.

The human body can synthesize all the K2 by our own healthy bacteria.

The contribution of vitamin K2 (menaquinones) produced by the intestinal microflora to human nutritional requirements for vitamin K.
Am J Gastroenterol. 1994 Jun;89(6):915-23.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8198105

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Coagulopathy manifest by elevation of the prothrombin time (PT) in patients receiving broad spectrum antimicrobials indirectly suggests a role for intestinal microflora synthesized menaquinone (MK) in the maintenance of normal coagulation. Nonetheless, no direct evidence is available to support this contention.

OBJECTIVE: Our objective was therefore to provide evidence that bacterially produced MK may be absorbed by the distal small bowel of humans.

METHODS:Using a cell harvester, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213) was grown in 12-L batches, harvested, and extracted by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to obtain 8 mg of pure MK. Four normal volunteers were placed on a diet severely restricted in vitamin K1 (median 32-40 U/day), and were given warfarin to maintain an International Normalized Ratio of approximately 2.0. On the 10th day of warfarin administration, naso-ileal intubation was performed and 1.5 mg of MK was delivered into the ileum. PT, factor VII, II and serum vitamin K1 levels were monitored throughout the study.

RESULTS:Mean serum vitamin K1 levels were reduced to 30% of the pre-diet value at the time of MK administration. Within 24 h of ileal MK administration, there was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the factor VII level of 0.28 +/- 0.10 U/ml (mean +/- SEM) and a significant decrease of 2.5 (+/- 0.1) s in the PT, whereas in the control phase (during which no MK was administered), there were no significant changes in the PT or factor VII at corresponding time intervals.

CONCLUSION:These data provide direct evidence for the absorption of vitamin K2 from the distal small bowel, supporting a definite role for bacterially synthesized vitamin K2 in contributing to the human nutritional requirements of this vitamin.


The production of menaquinones (vitamin K2) by intestinal bacteria and their role in maintaining coagulation homeostasis.
Prog Food Nutr Sci. 1992 Oct-Dec;16(4):307-43.
Conly JM1, Stein K.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1492156

Abstract

Vitamin K is an essential cofactor necessary for the production of clotting factors II, VII, IX, and X in humans and has recently been found to be an essential factor for many other proteins in the body. There are two sources of this essential vitamin, including vitamin K1, or phylloquinone which is primarily found in green leafy vegetables and vitamin K2 or menaquinone which is synthesized by certain intestinal bacteria. The precise contribution of the bacterially synthesized menaquinone to overall vitamin K requirements in man is unknown. This paper reviews the available literature regarding the production and liberation of menaquinones from bacteria, the animal experiments which have been done to examine the absorption of menaquinones and the indirect and direct evidence in humans regarding utilization of menaquinones. The preponderance of the evidence suggests that bacterially synthesized menaquinones, particularly in the ileum can and do play a significant role in contributing to vitamin K requirements in humans to prevent clinically significant coagulopathy, especially during periods of episodic dietary lack of the vitamin.


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Re: Vit. K2?

Postby Gwen » Tue Aug 06, 2013 11:28 am

Thanks Jeff. Our bodies are truly miraculous.
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