McDougall Diet and Glycation End Products

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McDougall Diet and Glycation End Products

Postby Blaine » Wed May 28, 2008 12:04 pm

Hello Jeff,

This is my first post to this forum. I am a 58-year old prediabetic. My blood sugars are fairly well controlled; my most recent A1C was 5.9. And I'm exercising pretty hard for the first time in many years. However, my weight isn't budging, and I'm ready to make a major change in diet. It will be no surprise that I'm vacillating between Dr. McDougall's MWL diet and Dr. Fuhrman's Eat to Live/ For Health. In terms of personal food preferences, I tend toward MWL. However, one of my primary concerns is diabetic neuropathy; I have the painful, burning variety.

Dr. Fuhrman has specifically criticized the McDougall diet as less than optimal for diabetics because of this very issue - formation of AGEs from starches.

http://www.diseaseproof.com/archives/diabetes-starchbased-diets-no-answer-for-diabetics.html

Is he talking through his hat, or not?

Thank you,

Blaine
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Re: McDougall Diet and Glycation End Products

Postby JeffN » Wed May 28, 2008 1:01 pm

Blaine wrote:Hello Jeff,

This is my first post to this forum. I am a 58-year old prediabetic. My blood sugars are fairly well controlled; my most recent A1C was 5.9. And I'm exercising pretty hard for the first time in many years. However, my weight isn't budging, and I'm ready to make a major change in diet. It will be no surprise that I'm vacillating between Dr. McDougall's MWL diet and Dr. Fuhrman's Eat to Live/ For Health. In terms of personal food preferences, I tend toward MWL. However, one of my primary concerns is diabetic neuropathy; I have the painful, burning variety.


Your A1C sounds great!

Weight, is a factor of caloric balance and calorie density. You may want to review the discussions here on this topic. Losing weight, next to controlling your blood sugars (of which, losing weight, especially belly fat, will help) will be critical to decreasing your future risk of complications.

viewtopic.php?t=6032

The information on AGEs and its relationship to the environment (Diet) is interesting however, there is no evidence that a program like the MWL will be harmful and in fact, the opposite.

It is true that carbohydrates that are cooked for long periods at very high temperatures (ie french fries, potato chips) and/or contain large amounts of refined sugars, can create AGEs, but no one here is recommending that you consume carbohydrates like that. And, on the MWL, which would be the best program for a diabetic, most all refined carbs are eliminated.

But carbs are not the major source of AGEs in the American diet that are being linked to some potential harmful effects. Animal products and high fat foods are the largest contributor of AGEs in the typical diet. Using a typical American diet, where most carbs are covered with fat and fried and or contain large amounts of refined sugars, and/or broiled and/or cooked at high heats as a reason to implicate a high carb diet such as the one recommended here, is misleading at best.

Switching from the typical American diet and consuming a diet that is low in fat and animal protein and animal products is the single most significant thing you can do to reduce the production of AGEs from your diet to a negliable amount. (SEE CHART BELOW)

However, in relation to diabetes, losing excess weight, being active, increasing fiber, and especially soluble fiber, decreasing fat, saturated fats and trans fat, and reducing and/or eliminating refined and/or processed carbs and sugars/sweeteners will be the most important steps you can take to improve your health and your chances of a long and healthy life.

Somehow, those high carb eaters in the Sierra Madre Mountains of Mexico and the Island of Okinawa and the mountains of Sardinia eat lots of carbohydrates and are some of the longest lived populations with virtually no incidence of diabetes. :)

If you wanted to apply what is known about AGEs to your lifestyle you could still follow the MWL with great success, but you would just steam, poach, stew and/or boil all your carbs. Dry heats, grilling, broiling would be the worst. But, as you can see by the numbers, it may be irrelevant in the big picture.

In Health
Jeff



Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 1: 1293-1299, 2006. Advanced Glycation End Products and Nephrotoxicity of High-Protein Diets

AGE in the Diet
Recent work indicates that food, particularly protein of animal origin, is a major source of AGE (45,46). A portion of these preformed AGE is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract as glycated amino acids and peptides. A database listing the content of CML in more than 200 food items has been compiled (45). AGE content in food is influenced by the distribution of macronutrients (proteins and fats more than carbohydrates) and by cooking conditions, including temperature, time, and moisture (45). In particular, cooking at high temperature generates a large amount of AGE because the reactions that produce these compounds are accelerated by increased heat. Culinary methods that are water based (steaming, poaching, boiling, and stewing) instead of fat based and/or browning methods (frying, broiling, and grilling) could greatly reduce AGE ingestion despite the same macronutrient content of foods. For example, a skinless chicken breast contains 692 AGE kilounits raw, 1011 AGE kilounits boiled, 5245 AGE kilounits broiled, and 6651 AGE kilounits fried (45).

Advanced glycoxidation end products in commonly consumed foods
Journal of the American Dietetic Association
August 2004 (Vol. 104, Issue 8, Pages 1287-1291)

Advanced glycoxidation end products (AGEs), the derivatives of glucose-protein or glucose-lipid interactions, are implicated in the complications of diabetes and aging. The objective of this article was to determine the AGE content of commonly consumed foods and to evaluate the effects of various methods of food preparation on AGE production.

Design

Two-hundred fifty foods were tested for their content in a common AGE marker ϵN-carboxymethyllysine (CML), using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on an anti-CML monoclonal antibody. Lipid and protein AGEs were represented in units of AGEs per gram of food.
Results

Foods of the fat group showed the highest amount of AGE content with a mean of 100±19 kU/g. High values were also observed for the meat and meat-substitute group, 43±7 kU/g. The carbohydrate group contained the lowest values of AGEs, 3.4±1.8 kU/g. The amount of AGEs present in all food categories was related to cooking temperature, length of cooking time, and presence of moisture. Broiling (225°C) and frying (177°C) resulted in the highest levels of AGEs, followed by roasting (177°C) and boiling (100°C).

Conclusions

The results indicate that diet can be a significant environmental source of AGEs, which may constitute a chronic risk factor for cardiovascular and kidney damage.


From the above study

AGE Amounts In Food (per serving)

(As you can see, it is not the potato, the sweet potato, or the slice of bread that is contributing to the AGE load of most people.)

Starchy vegetables
Corn, 20
Sweet potato, roasted, 72
White potato, boiled, 17
White potato, french fries, homemade 694
White potato, french fries, fast food 1,522
White potato, roasted, 45 min, prepared with 5 mL oil 218

Grains/legumes
Bean, red kidney, raw 116
Bean, red kidney, canned 191
Bean, red kidney, cooked 1 h 298
Pasta, cooked 8 min 112
Pasta, spiral, cooked 12 245

Bran Flakes 10
Corn Flakes 70
Frosted Flakes 128
Oatmeal instant, 4
Oatmeal,h instant 25

Bread
Whole wheat, center 16
Whole wheat, center toasted 25
Whole wheat, crust 22
Whole wheat, crust, toasted 36
Pita pocket 16

Fruits
Apple 13
Apple, baked 45
Banana 9
Cantaloupe 20
Raisin 36

Even good fats and/or good fats that are heated produce high levels of AGEs

Almonds, roasted 1,995
Avocado 473
Cashews, roasted 2,942
Olive, ripe 501
Peanut butter, smooth 2,255
Walnuts, roasted 2,366

From the above numbers, if I switch from a sweet potato to an avocado, I RAISE my levels of AGEs over 600%

The REAL Culprits

Cream cheese, 3,265
Mayonnaise 9470
Butter 1,324

Beef
Frankfurter, boiled 7 min 6,736
Frankfurter, broiled 5 min 10,143
Hamburger, fried 6 min 2,375
Hamburger, fast food 4,876
Meatball, boiled in sauce 2,567

Shoulder cut, broiled 5,367
Bacon, microwave 1,173
Deli ham, smoked 2,114
Pork chop, pan fried 4,277

Chicken breast, skinless cubes
Steamed 10 min and broiled 12 min 5,071
Pan fried 10 min and boiled 12 min 5,706

Chicken breast, skinless cutlet
Raw 692
Boiled 1 h 1,011
Broiled 15 min 5,245
Fried 8 min 6,651
Roasted, barbecue sauce 4,291
Roasted, breaded 4,102
Roasted, breaded, microwave, 1 min 5,157


Fish
Salmon, raw 502
Salmon, smoked 515
Trout, raw 705
Trout, roasted 25 min 1,924

Cheese
American, processed 2,603
American, processed,e low fat 1,425
Brie 1,679
Cottage cheese, 1,744
Feta 2,527
Mozzarella,e part skim 503
Parmesan,e grated 2,535
Last edited by JeffN on Fri Aug 28, 2009 7:39 am, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: McDougall Diet and Glycation End Products

Postby JeffN » Wed May 28, 2008 1:40 pm

Blaine wrote:Dr. Fuhrman has specifically criticized the McDougall diet as less than optimal for diabetics because of this very issue - formation of AGEs from starches.

http://www.diseaseproof.com/archives/diabetes-starchbased-diets-no-answer-for-diabetics.html


Copying from the link

Refined carbohydrates in bakery products and processed foods can cause heart attacks even in people who are not diabetic,2 but these products are even more dangerous for diabetics, since diabetics are more sensitive to the damaging effects of AGEs. Vegetarians (my wife calls them “vegjunktarians”) who eat large quantities of cooked starches and honey were found to have higher measurable levels of AGEs than people eating a more omnivorous diet.3

Krajcovicova-Kudlackova M, Sebekova K, Schinzel R, et al. Advanced glycation end products and nutrition. Physiol Res 2002;51:313-316.


Lets actually read this study together and see what it actually said...

Physiol. Res. 51: 313-316, 2002
SHORT COMMUNICATION Advanced Glycation End Products and Nutrition

Quoting from the article...

Summary

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) may play an important adverse role in process of atherosclerosis, diabetes, aging and chronic renal failure. Levels of Nε-carboxymethyllysine and fluorescent AGE values were estimated in two nutritional population groups ñ alternative group (vegetarians - plant food, milk products, eggs) (NOTE: THAT IS NOT THE DIET BEING RECOMMENDED HERE!) :) and traditional group (omnivorous subjects). Vegetarians have a significantly higher carboxymethyllysine content in plasma and fluorescent AGE values. Intake of proteins, lysine and monosaccharides as well as culinary treatment, consumption of food AGEs (mainly from technologically processed products) and the routes of Maillard reaction in organism are the substantial sources of plasma AGEs. Vegetarians consume less proteins and saccharides. Lysine intake is significantly reduced (low content in plant proteins). Subjects on alternative nutrition do not use high temperature for culinary treatment and consume low amount of technologically processed food. Fructation induced AGE fluorescence is greater as compared with that induced by glucose. It is due to higher participation of a more reactive acyclic form of fructose. Intake of vegetables and fruit with predominance of fructose is significantly higher in vegetarians. Comparison of nutrition and plasma AGEs in vegetarian and omnivorous groups shows that the higher intake of fructose in alternative nutrition of healthy subjects may cause an increase of AGE levels.

(NOTE: It was the FRUCTOSE, not starches that was the source of the higher AGEs. Also, see Chart Below for Fructose content of foods)

Continuing on....

A typical difference of alternative nutrition in comparison to traditional nutrition besides a higher consumption of whole grain products, sprouts, seeds and plant fats also concerns the significantly higher intake of fruit and vegetables . Many species of vegetables and fruit have higher proportion of fructose in comparison to glucose. Intake of fruit and vegetables with higher content of fructose vs. glucose and intake of apples and honey evaluated from the dietary questionnaires indicated that fructose consumption is significantly higher in vegetarians as compared to subjects on a traditional diet (Table 1). Fresh and dried apples have almost a twofold content of fructose vs. glucose and their consumption is higher in vegetarians. Furthermore the intake of honey is three times higher in vegetarians.

(NOTE: it was the fructose in the honey and the fruit and dried fruit content and not the starches).

Comparison of nutritional regime and values of AGEs shows that the higher intake of fructose in alternative nutrition of healthy subjects may cause an increase plasma AGE values. Protective effect of regular consumption of vegetables and fruit dominantly concerns the prevention of free-radical diseases. The risks of alternative nutrition may be reduced by better choice of foodstuffs. Our finding of elevated plasma AGE concentrations in vegetarians should prospectively be followed from the point of their pathophysiological relevance.

(NOTE: Again, it was the fructose in the honey, and fruit not the starches. Starches are low in fructose)


From the USDA..SR 20

Fructose Content of Selected Common Plant Foods (g/100g)

Honey 40.94

Fruit
Apple 5.9
Apricots 0.9
Banana 4.9
Dates 19.6
Grapes 8.1
Peach 1.5
Pear 6.2

Vegetables
Beet, Red 0.1
Carrot 0.6
Corn, Sweet 0.5
Red Pepper, Sweet 2.3
Onion, Sweet 2.0

Starches
Sweet Potato .7
Yam tr
Potato, baked, flesh and skin, .34
Oatmeal 0.0
Brown Rice 0.0

(BTW These numbers are per 100 grams. As you probably all know, comaring foods per calorie is better than per gram. As starches average 500 calories per pound (454 grams), they average 110 calories per 100 grams. Fruits, which average 250 calories per pound, average 55 calories per 100 grams.

So, if we adjust the above numbers per calorie the amount of fructose per 100 calories in the starch's goes down and the amount in the fruit and vegetables go up, Per 100 calories)

It was the honey, not the starches.

In Health
Jeff N
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Re: McDougall Diet and Glycation End Products

Postby Blaine » Wed May 28, 2008 2:32 pm

Hi Jeff and all,

Thanks so much for the quick replies - and especially for the interpretation of some of these studies. I tried making sense of this issue by reading things like this on the Internet, and my head exploded. Surely you heard it, it was very loud.

It would seem that- in the large scheme of things - I shouldn't be worried about eating baked potatoes and apples, two of my favorite foods.

Thanks again to you all,

Blaine
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Postby Suebee » Wed May 28, 2008 5:23 pm

Unbelievable! Thanks again Jeff. If I understand this correctly (and it was difficult to follow), we should LOWER our fruit intake? Especially dried fruits? Several other questions: are fruits worse than meat products for AGE's? It seems this was a strange study. Why were the AGE's lower in omnivores than "vegetarians?" It sounds as though eating animal products was safer than eating unlimited fruits and some honey! I'm confused.
2) This is a separate issue but I don't know where to find the numbers on several products that are in my diet (at least right now): how bad are coffee beverage substitutes like Cafix, Pero (roasted barley and chicory); are they worse or the same as granulated organic coffee? How about cocoa powder? That is supposed to be roasted too. My husband keeps trying to get me to quit this stuff because he says it's "burnt grain beverages." Same as burnt toast, etc. and can't be good for you. I'd like an educated answer. Thanks. Yes, I love green tea but I like a hot drink in the morning that is NOT tea.
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Postby JeffN » Wed May 28, 2008 7:02 pm

Suebee wrote:Unbelievable! Thanks again Jeff. If I understand this correctly (and it was difficult to follow), we should LOWER our fruit intake? Especially dried fruits?


No. Look at the numbers. While some fruits and dried fruits that are higher in fructose do produce more AGEs, look at their number compared to meat, dairy and fats. So, while an apple at 13 is higher than a banana at 9, this is basically irrelevant when compared to the numbers for meat, chicken, cheese etc, which are in the hundreds if not 1000s.

I do not know the numbers for the roasted grain beverages but roasted coffe beans were very low. (See Below)

But, you are missing the point. If you eliminate all the foods that contribute the 100s and 1000s of AGEs, which is what is producing most of the harm, then were is the evidence that a few AGEs, from healthy food like a few fruits is doing any damage?

In Health
Jeff

Coffee, decaffeinated, instant13
Instant 12
Drip method 4
Tea 5
Decaffeinated 3
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Postby Suebee » Thu May 29, 2008 5:10 am

I did understand the numbers, Jeff--what confuses me is the result of the blood test done on vegetarians (with high glycation dairy products and eggs--is THAT the problem??) versus the omnivores who ate far higher meats (probably badly cooked and not just boiled)--so I don't get it! Sounds like the fructose was more damaging. What gives? Eggs and dairy products don't have as high numbers as roasted meats do they? Unless the vegetarians ate nothing but pizza! I would imagine cooking cheese at high temps is VERY bad! But the researchers stressed the fructose of fruits and honey? Please clarify and thanks for the reassurance that I can continue my one cup of coffee! :D
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Postby JeffN » Thu May 29, 2008 5:26 am

Suebee wrote:I did understand the numbers, Jeff--what confuses me is the result of the blood test done on vegetarians (with high glycation dairy products and eggs--is THAT the problem??) versus the omnivores who ate far higher meats (probably badly cooked and not just boiled)--so I don't get it! Sounds like the fructose was more damaging. What gives? Eggs and dairy products don't have as high numbers as roasted meats do they? Unless the vegetarians ate nothing but pizza! I would imagine cooking cheese at high temps is VERY bad! But the researchers stressed the fructose of fruits and honey? Please clarify and thanks for the reassurance that I can continue my one cup of coffee! :D


Hi Suebee

It is irrelevant because it is a poorly done study. You are assuming you know what the two groups ate. We don't. We only know some parts of what they ate as they study does a very poor job of describing the diets. And, some foods were excluded that were known to cause high AGEs to try and "level the field".

Vegetarian diets can be very unhealthy. We know that. But, we are not recommending an unhealthy diet here, vegetarian or not.

So, You are worrying about a diet that has absolutely no relationship to the one you are (hopefully) following and/or the one recommended here.

Also, just because they showed that an unhealthy vegetarian diet had a slightly higher amount of AGEs in it, where is the evidence that this slightly higher amount is harmful, at all, or to anyone? Or is high enough to be responsible for the problems theoretically associated with AGEs?

No where.

The difference in AGEs was 9.91 to 13.07 which are both extremely low. So, while the "relative" value was higher (32% which sounds HUGE) , the absolute value was still extremely low and irrelevant. And, this above amount can easily be explained by the 3x intake of honey in the vegetarian group.

The real crime is that anyone would use such a study to condemn a diet like the one recommended here.

So, Relax.

Have a cup of coffee :)

In Health
Jeff
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Postby Suebee » Thu May 29, 2008 6:00 am

Once again, thank you! I can see now that you were just disproving this badly done study which was used to condemn the McDougall diet. I should have realized that was the point. I guess my former macrobiotic fears of fruit were showing. :oops:
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Postby JeffN » Fri Jun 13, 2008 7:39 am

This is the summary review from a recent journal that was dedicated to a great debate around the issue of AGEs.

Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2007, 51, 1075 – 1078
Review

Dietary advanced glycation end products – a risk to
human health? A call for an interdisciplinary debate
Thomas Henle


3 Biological activity of dietary AGEs – two
sides of a medal?

Starting with reports in the mid 1980s of the 20th century,
the formation ofAGEswas linked to consequences of diabetes
[22] and later on to biological disorders such as cataract
or diabetic nephropathy [23, 24]. Artificially prepared
“AGE-proteins” were found to initiate a range of cellular
responses in vitro, including stimulation of monocyte chemotaxis,
secretion of cytokines and growth factors from
macrophages and endothelial cells, and proliferation of
smooth muscle cells [15]. Concerning molecular mechanisms
responsible for cell activation by AGEs, a specific
receptor designated “RAGE” (”receptor for AGEs”) gained
particular interest [36]. Since its first description, a myriad
of papers has been published showing that binding of ligands
to RAGE results in activation of the proinflammatory transcription
factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-jB) and subsequent
expression of NF-jB-regulated cytokines [37, 38].
RAGE-AGE interaction thus may trigger cellular dysfunction
in inflammatory disorders. Based on this findings,
RAGE is discussed as a target for drug development [39],
although the structures of possible RAGE-ligands still have
not been identified. Nowadays, it is generally accepted that
AGEs are an important class of uremic toxins, although there
is virtually no information about defined structure-activity
relationships documenting the “toxic” effect of individual
compounds in physiological concentrations [15, 25].

In line with this discussion, it was not a surprise that
questions arose concerning the intake of dietary AGEs via
the daily food and their possible (patho)physiological role
[26]. From the quantitative point of view, the amount of specific
amino acid derivatives ingested with meals from certain
heated foods farly exceed the total amount of AGEs in
the human body. In this context, it was proposed that serum
AGE levels can be influenced by a diet containing AGEs,
and the term “glycotoxins” was created in order to express
that dietary glycation products may represent a risk factor
in diabetic and uremic patients [27]. Indeed, spectacular
reports showed that a high-AGE diet may lead to an
increase in inflammatory markers [28], and concrete dietary
recommendations were published in order to minimize
health risks by avoiding heated foods [29]. On the other
hand, however, these studies must be discussed carefully
due to considerable limitations in the analytical techniques
used. Furthermore, several recent reports argue against
adverse effects and even discuss positive aspects resulting
from consumption of browned foods. In a cross-sectional
study with hemodialysis patients, it was found that
increased AGEs are not linked to mortality [30]. On a cellular
level, it was found that defined AGEs do not bind to
RAGE, the prominent receptor for AGEs, and do not induce
inflammatory signals, thus arguing against a uniformly role
of AGEs in cellular activation [31, 32]. Furthermore, there
may even be a “chemoprotective” role of individual dietary
AGES due to antioxidative properties or by inhibiting
tumor cell growth [33–35].


4 Conclusion
Physiological consequences resulting from protein-bound
Maillard compounds in foods must be discussed carefully.
This was the idea behind the debate, which is put for discussion
by the papers by Sebekova and Somoza, who argued
for the motion that dietary AGEs are a health risk, and by
Ames, who provided evidence against the motion. In this
two excellent reviews, numerous arguments based on
papers published in high-impact journals are given for each
of the opinions. The fact that no final conclusion can be
drawn, may reflect the need for a more comprehensive
examination of this issue in the future. For a deeper understanding
of biological consequences resulting from heated
foods, the relationships between well-defined biological
effects and well-characterized chemical structures must be
studied. Prerequisite for this is profound chemistry – pure
compounds, exact concentrations, and unambiguous analytical
techniques. A real “risk assessment” is much too complex
than to leave it up to one discipline alone. It must be a
comprehensive and interdisciplinary approach, joining the
resources of biology, medicine, and chemistry.



While some people are trying to overly interpret and (mis)apply the results of a few small and not well done studies as evidence against consuming fruits, veggies and starchy veggies because of AGEs.....

The bottom line (again) is...

follow the dietary guidelines and principles recommended here and do not worry about your baked yams, potatoes and oatmeal in the context of a healthy diet and lifestyle.

:)

In Health
Jeff

(PS if anyone is really interested in the AGE issue, PM me and I will send you the numerous studies from the full issue for you to fully read.)

[30] Schwedler, S. B., Metzger, T., Schinzel, R., Wanner, C.,
Advanced glycation end products and mortality in hemodialysis
patients, Kidney Int. 2002, 62, 301–310.

[31] Valencia, J. V., Mone, M., Koehne, C., Rediske, J., Hughes, T.
E., Binding of receptor for advanced glycation end products
(RAGE) ligands is not sufficient to induce inflammatory signals:
Lack of activity of endotoxin-free albumin-derived
advanced glycation end products, Diabetologia 2004, 47,
844–852.

[32] Demling, N., Ehrhardt, C., Kasper, M., Laue, M., et al., Promotion
of cell adherence and spreading: A novel function of
RAGE, the highly selective differentiation marker of human
alveolar epithelial type I cells, Cell Tissue Res. 2006, 323,
475–488.

[33] Marko, D., Habermeyer, M., Kemeny, M., Weyand, U., et al.,
Maillard reaction products modulating the growth of human
tumor cells in vitro, Chem. Res. Toxicol. 2003, 16, 48–55.

[34] Somoza, V., Wenzel, E., Lindenmeier, M., Grothe, D., et al.,
Influence of feeding malt, bread crust, and a pronylated protein
on the activity of chemopreventive enzymes and antioxidative
defense parameters in vivo, J. Agric. Food Chem. 2005,
53, 8176–8182.

[35] Chuyen, N. V., Toxicity of the AGEs generated from the Maillard
reaction: On the relationship of food-AGEs and biological-
AGEs, Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2006, 50, 1140–1149.
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Postby JeffN » Mon Jun 16, 2008 9:55 am

Rejuvenation Res. 2007 Jun;10(2):225-34.Click here to read Links
Long-term low-calorie low-protein vegan diet and endurance exercise are associated with low cardiometabolic risk. Fontana L, Meyer TE, Klein S, Holloszy JO.

Division of Geriatrics and Nutritional Sciences and Center for Human Nutrition, Washington University School of Medicine, 4566 Scott Avenue, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. lfontana@im.wustl.edu

BACKGROUND: Western diets, which typically contain large amounts of energy-dense processed foods, together with a sedentary lifestyle are associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. We evaluated the long-term effects of consuming a low-calorie low-protein vegan diet or performing regular endurance exercise on cardiometabolic risk factors.

METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, cardiometabolic risk factors were evaluated in 21 sedentary subjects, who had been on a low-calorie low-protein raw vegan diet for 4.4 +/- 2.8 years, (mean age, 53.1 +/- 11 yrs), 21 body mass index (BMI)-matched endurance runners consuming Western diets, and 21 age- and gender-matched sedentary subjects, consuming Western diets.

RESULTS: BMI was lower in the low-calorie low-protein vegan diet (21.3 +/- 3.1 kg/m(2)) and endurance runner (21.1 +/- 1.6 kg/m(2)) groups than in the sedentary Western diet group (26.5 +/- 2.7 kg/m(2)) (p < 0.005). Plasma concentrations of lipids, lipoproteins, glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein, blood pressure (BP), and carotid artery intima-media thickness were lower in the low-calorie low-protein vegan diet and runner groups than in the Western diet group (all p < 0.05). Both systolic and diastolic BP were lower in the low-calorie low-protein vegan diet group (104 +/- 15 and 62 +/- 11 mm Hg) than in BMI-matched endurance runners (122 +/- 13 and 72 +/- 9 mmHg) and Western diet group (132 +/- 14 and 79 +/- 8 mm Hg) (p < 0.001); BP values were directly associated with sodium intake and inversely associated with potassium and fiber intake.

CONCLUSIONS: Long-term consumption of a low-calorie low-protein vegan diet or regular endurance exercise training is associated with low cardiometabolic risk. Moreover, our data suggest that specific components of a low-calorie low-protein vegan diet provide additional beneficial effects on blood pressure.

PMID: 17518696




"Long-term low-protein, low-calorie diet and endurance exercise modulate metabolic factors associated with cancer risk." Fontana L, Klein S, Holloszy JO.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Dec;84(6):1456-62

Division of Geriatrics and Nutritional Science and the Center for Human Nutrition, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA. lfontana@im.wustl.edu

"BACKGROUND: Western diets, obesity, and sedentary lifestyles are associated with increased cancer risk. The mechanisms responsible for this increased risk, however, are not clear.

"OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that long-term low protein, low calorie intake and endurance exercise are associated with low concentrations of plasma growth factors and hormones that are linked to an increased risk of cancer.

"DESIGN: Plasma growth factors and hormones were evaluated in 21 sedentary subjects, who had been eating a low-protein, low-calorie diet for 4.4 +/- 2.8 y (x +/- SD age: 53.0 +/- 11 y); 21 endurance runners matched by body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2); and 21 age- and sex-matched sedentary subjects eating Western diets. RESULTS: BMI was lower in the low-protein, low-calorie diet (21.3 +/- 3.1) and runner (21.6 +/- 1.6) groups than in the Western diet (26.5 +/- 2.7; P < 0.005) group. Plasma concentrations of insulin, free sex hormones, leptin, and C-reactive protein were lower and sex hormone-binding globulin was higher in the low-protein, low-calorie diet and runner groups than in the sedentary Western diet group (all P < 0.05). Plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and the concentration ratio of IGF-I to IGF binding protein 3 were lower in the low-protein, low-calorie diet group (139 +/- 37 ng/mL and 0.033 +/- 0.01, respectively) than in the runner (177 +/- 37 ng/mL and 0.044 +/- 0.01, respectively) and sedentary Western (201 +/- 42 ng/mL and 0.046 +/- 0.01, respectively) diet groups (P < 0.005).

"CONCLUSIONS: Exercise training, decreased adiposity, and long-term consumption of a low-protein, low-calorie diet are associated with low plasma growth factors and hormones that are linked to an increased risk of cancer. Low protein intake may have additional protective effects because it is associated with a decrease in circulating IGF-I independent of body fat mass."

PMID: 17158430.
Last edited by JeffN on Mon Jun 16, 2008 2:17 pm, edited 3 times in total.
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Re: McDougall Diet and Glycation End Products

Postby JeffN » Tue Dec 28, 2010 8:03 am

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20497781

J Am Diet Assoc. 2010 Jun;110(6):911-16.e12.

Advanced glycation end products in foods and a practical guide to their reduction in the diet.

Abstract

Modern diets are largely heat-processed and as a result contain high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Dietary advanced glycation end products (dAGEs) are known to contribute to increased oxidant stress and inflammation, which are linked to the recent epidemics of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This report significantly expands the available dAGE database, validates the dAGE testing methodology, compares cooking procedures and inhibitory agents on new dAGE formation, and introduces practical approaches for reducing dAGE consumption in daily life. Based on the findings, dry heat promotes new dAGE formation by >10- to 100-fold above the uncooked state across food categories. Animal-derived foods that are high in fat and protein are generally AGE-rich and prone to new AGE formation during cooking. In contrast, carbohydrate-rich foods such as vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and milk contain relatively few AGEs, even after cooking. The formation of new dAGEs during cooking was prevented by the AGE inhibitory compound aminoguanidine and significantly reduced by cooking with moist heat, using shorter cooking times, cooking at lower temperatures, and by use of acidic ingredients such as lemon juice or vinegar. The new dAGE database provides a valuable instrument for estimating dAGE intake and for guiding food choices to reduce dAGE intake.
2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID: 20497781
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