SB, when you say started, do you mean in the garden itself or in pots? Assuming you mean pots, I offer a few suggestions........
That which you started inside will need to be hardened off before you plant it in the garden. Do not just take it from inside and plant it outside, that's too much shock. For example, the light inside is nowhere near as strong as the sun, and the plants need to become accustomed to the stronger light.
The corn needs to be planted in a block, as it's wind pollinated. Do not plant in a long row, lest the wind be blowing in the "wrong" direction at pollination time.
Plant the squashes where you can inspect the bases of the plants periodically. Members of the cucurbit family are subject to attack by squash vine borers, and if you catch them promptly and remove the wormy guys from the stems and bury the injured stem with some soil, you can quite often save the plant.
BTW, there are many items on your list that you can direct seed quite easily. Corn, beans, squashes, cucumbers, zinnias and sunflowers all do well that way, you need not start them outside of the garden.
You don't have to plant everything at one time either. Succession planting guarantees continued harvests. Make sure you don't put warm weather crops out before the soil is warm enough.
Get out some good old fashioned graph paper and draw your garden. Then make some copies of it so you can try different plans. Seriously, it is very useful to do so. And, funny as it sounds, remember to leave room to bend over and work in the garden. I didn't the first time and was forever sitting on things, backing into things, creaming them with my shoes, and so forth. Plus it's lots easier on your body not to have to play contortionist to do what you need to do.
Read your seed packages to determine what needs the most sun and what can do with less.
The chipmunks never ate my stuff, they did excel at uprooting plenty of the flowers that I'd transplanted. They are good at burrowing beneath things, which heaves the soil up some. They loved the dill patch. As long as they basically left it alone, I didn't care.
You can buy hoops and row covers. Don't cover things that need pollinators though. The deer I can't address, as they weren't an issue in the suburbs.
Compost that is matured should be incorporated into the soil. If it is not fully decomposed, it may take nitrogen from the soil to complete its decomposition processes, which is not a good thing.